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Voices of the Global Community

From the President: A Year in Reflections

Joanne K. Damminger, NACADA President

President Damminger.jpgHello NACADA,

As I write this fourth, and final, article for AAT as part of my term as President, I am very reflective and appreciative of the past year's wonderful experiences as President. I thought it fitting, therefore, to share my thoughts and more importantly, what I learned this past year, especially from the most valuable component of this great Association – its members!

The term as President of NACADA begins at the conclusion of the Annual Conference in the fall. Soon after returning home from the conference last October, I found myself preparing a keynote for an advising conference in our fiftieth state, Hawaii! I learned a great deal during the Advising Kuleana Across the UH System Advisors Workshop 2013. I brought back a concept that builds on the Front Door Experience that I wrote about in the May AAT article. Attendees at the conference explained to me the Hawaiian custom they use to extend the Front Door Experience at their campuses and likened their approach to inviting students not only through the front door, but into the warm kitchen and living areas of their homes so that strong connections are made through advising sessions and processes. This analogy truly demonstrated the importance of relational skills in effective advising. Although the informational and conceptual aspects of advising are critical to advising's role in student success, it is often the way advisors relate to students that builds relationships with students and encourages them to return.

I am going to jump ahead to an experience I had more recently at the NACADA Summer Institute because it also reinforced my belief in the acute importance of relational skills. A wonderful group of undergraduate peer advisors from St. Petersburg College in Florida did a panel presentation for attendees at the Summer Institute. When asked what the students wanted in their own advisors and advising experiences, every answer had to do with relational skills. Each peer advisor wanted an advisor who was accessible, nice, pleasant, welcoming, caring, and asked questions to help the student learn what s/he needed to meet academic and career goals. We cannot argue with students' needs that are identified by the students themselves! This does not minimize the importance of the informational and conceptual components of effective advising, but clearly demonstrates the impact of building effective advisor-student relationships.

As my presidential term moved into the months of December, January, and February, I experienced once again how much of the work of NACADA leaders is completed electronically. I was very busy emailing to and from the Executive Office and Board of Directors and utilizing Adobe Connect for communications and virtual face-to-face meetings. During this time, the Board adopted a new initiative to gauge our accomplishments throughout the year by writing outcomes that would help measure our progress. Two sub-groups led by Janet Spence and Nathan Vickers began their work on these outcomes and extended it throughout the year. During this time, I also kept abreast of the work of our Administrative Division, led by Blane Harding and Terry Musser, who took on the task of reviewing the membership, charge, and responsibilities of each committee and advisory board in the Administrative Division. The resulting work will have a positive impact on the Association for years to come. The CIG Division met regularly and started several new initiatives including virtual online office hours so members could ask questions and receive immediate answers during online chat times.

Early spring brought the invigoration that results from attendance at our regional conferences and living first-hand the direct results of the work of our Regional Division. I experienced what a difference a year can make in the development of a region, its leadership, succession planning, and team building. I had fun facilitating first-time attendee orientations, meeting our newest members, and sharing NACADA updates and pathways to NACADA leadership. The regional sessions entitled "NACADA Listens" were equally enjoyable as I learned about the interests of our members and what they wanted to know about our Association. Providing information at these sessions was both intrinsically and extrinsically rewarding.

Throughout the remainder of the year, I presented at several institutions, met wonderful people, and learned that advisors everywhere are driven by their passion for advising and desire to contribute to students' goal attainment and next steps. My visit with our members in Canada affirmed how much our structures and processes are alike and, although a few terms may be different, the underpinning of student success is at the core of what we all do.

In April, when the Board met once again face to face, we discussed the progress of the two newly created standing committees, the Committee for Sustainable NACADA Leadership and the Committee for Global Initiatives – two noteworthy accomplishments of the Board this year. The Committee for Sustainable NACADA Leadership is creating pathways to NACADA leadership and opportunities for members' professional development. Stayed tuned for more details to come! The Committee on Global Initiatives is working on a lexicon of advising terminology that can be understood worldwide and opportunities for members to meet biennially at the international NACADA conference. More recently the Board approved a policy for collaboration with key constituents in higher education that can greatly benefit members and the scholarship of advising as a profession.

As we consider the scholarship and research of advising, let us be reminded that all of us as advisors and administrators of advising bear responsibility to the profession of advising and can assist by making advising the focus of conversations about completion on every campus. Consider doing research on your advising practice and publishing the results. It is also important that we spread the word to all types of institutions about the benefits of NACADA membership. And to all of the community colleges out there, I mean you, too! I hope that my work in the community college sector will encourage more community colleges to get involved in NACADA and reap the benefits for staff and students. If you want to learn more about how to get involved, please reach out to me, other NACADA leaders, or anyone in the Executive Office.

As my presidential year is not complete until the Annual Conference in October, I will continue the progress and momentum of the past 10 months. I have many more stories and lessons to talk and laugh about, so please reach out to me at the upcoming Annual Conference so I may share them with you. I hope you are all currently putting in place the support you need to attend the Annual Conference in Minneapolis October 8-11. I look forward to seeing you there!

Congratulations to JP Regalado and David Spight, the incoming President and Vice President of NACADA respectively. I am confident that they will excel in building on current NACADA initiatives. I recommend that the Board continue its focus on enhancing advising as a profession and NACADA leadership development for our members. There are tremendous opportunities on the horizon in these areas so stay tuned for more information.

I want to also take this opportunity to say thank you to the membership for putting your trust in me the last year, to the Board of Directors with whom it has been my pleasure to work the past three years, and to the Executive Office for their help during my time on the Board and as Vice President and President of NACADA. You are all my NACADA family, and you have made this a truly wonderful journey. I thank you all!

Joanne K. Damminger, President, 2013-2014
NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising
Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs
Delaware Technical Community College
joanned@dtcc.edu


From the Executive Director: Academic Advising Excellence Across the World - See more at: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/From-the-Executive-Director-Academic-Advising-Excellence-Across-the-World.aspx#sthash.TggrRxht.dpuf
From the Executive Director: Academic Advising Excellence Across the World - See more at: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/From-the-Executive-Director-Academic-Advising-Excellence-Across-the-World.aspx#sthash.TggrRxht.dpuf
From the Executive Director: Academic Advising Excellence Across the World - See more at: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/From-the-Executive-Director-Academic-Advising-Excellence-Across-the-World.aspx#sthash.TggrRxht.dpuf
From the Executive Director: Academic Advising Excellence Across the World - See more at: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/From-the-Executive-Director-Academic-Advising-Excellence-Across-the-World.aspx#sthash.TggrRxht.dpuf
From the Executive Director: Academic Advising Excellence Across the World - See more at: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/From-the-Executive-Director-Academic-Advising-Excellence-Across-the-World.aspx#sthash.TggrRxht.dpuf

Charlie Nutt, NACADA Executive Director

Charlie Nutt.jpgAs we move closer to our Annual Conference in Minneapolis, it is exciting to look forward to the outstanding presentations and networking opportunities we will have. Each year NACADA’s annual conference grows not only in regard to the number of attendees, but also in the quality of the preconference workshops, concurrent sessions, and poster sessions that we have the opportunity to attend. Not only are the presentations the best in terms of successful programs, quality research, and best practices from institutions across the globe, but also the sessions, the Commission/Interest Group Fair and meetings, and the regional meetings give us all the opportunity to network and work with colleagues internationally.

This is NACADA’s 38th annual conference – what a history and tradition of excellence in academic advising learning experiences! In addition, this is the 38th time that our volunteer conference chairs and their conference committees have worked diligently to coordinate the best conference possible. The very close involvement of our members in the organization and coordination of our annual conference is why NACADA is recognized as one of the strongest higher education associations internationally. From our very beginning, NACADA has been an association that values and depends on the strong involvement of our members in all our conferences, publications, and other professional development opportunities. It is this involvement of our members that keeps our association growing and expanding. Special thanks to this year’s Annual Conference Chair, Amy Sannes, and her conference committee for the great work they have done in making sure this conference is the best ever!

It has been a very busy year for NACADA, as President Joanne Damminger outlines her article. With each new initiative at all levels of the association, NACADA has moved closer to meeting our strategic goals. These initiatives not only strengthen our association, but also greatly enhance and expand the impact NACADA, our leaders, and our members are having on the profession of academic advising and the success of students at colleges and universities internationally. A special thanks to President Damminger, Vice President JP Regalado, the NACADA Board of Directors, the NACADA Council, and all leaders and volunteers for your commitment and dedication to NACADA.

I look forward to seeing all of you in Minneapolis! It’s hard to believe this is my 13th annual conference as a member of the NACADA Executive Office located at Kansas State University. Each year I have grown as a professional and it has been the most rewarding work in my career!

Charlie Nutt, Executive Director
NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising
(785) 532-5717
cnutt@ksu.edu

- See more at: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/From-the-Executive-Director-Academic-Advising-Excellence-Across-the-World.aspx#sthash.TggrRxht.dpuf

Charlie Nutt, NACADA Executive Director

Charlie Nutt.jpgAs we move closer to our Annual Conference in Minneapolis, it is exciting to look forward to the outstanding presentations and networking opportunities we will have. Each year NACADA’s annual conference grows not only in regard to the number of attendees, but also in the quality of the preconference workshops, concurrent sessions, and poster sessions that we have the opportunity to attend. Not only are the presentations the best in terms of successful programs, quality research, and best practices from institutions across the globe, but also the sessions, the Commission/Interest Group Fair and meetings, and the regional meetings give us all the opportunity to network and work with colleagues internationally.

This is NACADA’s 38th annual conference – what a history and tradition of excellence in academic advising learning experiences! In addition, this is the 38th time that our volunteer conference chairs and their conference committees have worked diligently to coordinate the best conference possible. The very close involvement of our members in the organization and coordination of our annual conference is why NACADA is recognized as one of the strongest higher education associations internationally. From our very beginning, NACADA has been an association that values and depends on the strong involvement of our members in all our conferences, publications, and other professional development opportunities. It is this involvement of our members that keeps our association growing and expanding. Special thanks to this year’s Annual Conference Chair, Amy Sannes, and her conference committee for the great work they have done in making sure this conference is the best ever!

It has been a very busy year for NACADA, as President Joanne Damminger outlines her article. With each new initiative at all levels of the association, NACADA has moved closer to meeting our strategic goals. These initiatives not only strengthen our association, but also greatly enhance and expand the impact NACADA, our leaders, and our members are having on the profession of academic advising and the success of students at colleges and universities internationally. A special thanks to President Damminger, Vice President JP Regalado, the NACADA Board of Directors, the NACADA Council, and all leaders and volunteers for your commitment and dedication to NACADA.

I look forward to seeing all of you in Minneapolis! It’s hard to believe this is my 13th annual conference as a member of the NACADA Executive Office located at Kansas State University. Each year I have grown as a professional and it has been the most rewarding work in my career!

Charlie Nutt, Executive Director
NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising
(785) 532-5717
cnutt@ksu.edu

- See more at: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Academic-Advising-Today/View-Articles/From-the-Executive-Director-Academic-Advising-Excellence-Across-the-World.aspx#sthash.TggrRxht.dpuf

From the Executive Director: Academic Advising Excellence Across the World

Charlie Nutt, NACADA Executive Director

Charlie Nutt.jpgAs we move closer to our Annual Conference in Minneapolis, it is exciting to look forward to the outstanding presentations and networking opportunities we will have. Each year NACADA’s annual conference grows not only in regard to the number of attendees, but also in the quality of the preconference workshops, concurrent sessions, and poster sessions that we have the opportunity to attend. Not only are the presentations the best in terms of successful programs, quality research, and best practices from institutions across the globe, but also the sessions, the Commission/Interest Group Fair and meetings, and the regional meetings give us all the opportunity to network and work with colleagues internationally.

This is NACADA’s 38th annual conference – what a history and tradition of excellence in academic advising learning experiences! In addition, this is the 38th time that our volunteer conference chairs and their conference committees have worked diligently to coordinate the best conference possible. The very close involvement of our members in the organization and coordination of our annual conference is why NACADA is recognized as one of the strongest higher education associations internationally. From our very beginning, NACADA has been an association that values and depends on the strong involvement of our members in all our conferences, publications, and other professional development opportunities. It is this involvement of our members that keeps our association growing and expanding. Special thanks to this year’s Annual Conference Chair, Amy Sannes, and her conference committee for the great work they have done in making sure this conference is the best ever!

It has been a very busy year for NACADA, as President Joanne Damminger outlines her article. With each new initiative at all levels of the association, NACADA has moved closer to meeting our strategic goals. These initiatives not only strengthen our association, but also greatly enhance and expand the impact NACADA, our leaders, and our members are having on the profession of academic advising and the success of students at colleges and universities internationally. A special thanks to President Damminger, Vice President JP Regalado, the NACADA Board of Directors, the NACADA Council, and all leaders and volunteers for your commitment and dedication to NACADA.

I look forward to seeing all of you in Minneapolis! It’s hard to believe this is my 13th annual conference as a member of the NACADA Executive Office located at Kansas State University. Each year I have grown as a professional and it has been the most rewarding work in my career!

Charlie Nutt, Executive Director
NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising
(785) 532-5717
cnutt@ksu.edu


VPbanner.jpgAdvising, Curriculum Development, and Teaching: Making the Connection

R. Dale Smith, Virginia Commonwealth University

R. Dale Smith.jpbFor three years I‘ve worked as coordinator of undergraduate advising and instructor of English at my university—a job that involves shepherding approximately 500 English majors through their curriculum and over various policy hurdles, in addition to teaching two courses a year.  Initially I didn’t value the advising as much as the teaching, perhaps because it was new to me, but I’ve since come to appreciate the role.  Not only does advising allow me to know my department's students to a degree other faculty do not, occasionally forging connections with them that last beyond graduation, but it has positively influenced my work in the classroom, leading both to curriculum development and stronger teaching.

When I began the job in fall 2011, my teaching load consisted of two fiction writing classes—an attractive set-up that allowed me to make use of the MFA in creative writing I recently earned and to teach small courses of no more than 16 students, all of whom wanted to be there.  This changed, however, after my advising sessions revealed student concerns about another course, “The Bible as Literature,” which was only offered by Religious Studies faculty at the time.  “All we do is listen to lectures,” I heard from numerous English majors taking the class that year, their comment often delivered in a disappointed tone, “and we hardly write any papers.  It’s all tests!  How is this a lit class?”

As a former English major myself, I understood the students’ frustration with a lit course that involved little discussion, as discussions are what give literature classes their magic, if you will.  I also understood their disappointment over the lack of papers, as writing is how English majors engage meaningfully with texts and develop a sense of ownership of a course.  Additionally, as an advisor, I felt charged to better this situation in some way, or at least attempt to do so, in order to heighten student satisfaction and learning.

Before the MFA, I earned a graduate degree in Biblical Studies, which left me with a strong understanding of the wide variety of writings that form biblical literature.  This being the case, I received my department chair’s blessing (so to speak) to trade in one of my fiction writing courses in order to develop an alternative, English Department version of “The Bible as Literature,” which I created with the comments from my advising sessions in mind.  Offered three semesters since then, most recently at capacity, the class is discussion-oriented and paper-driven, includes a sampling of contemporary literature with biblical echoes, and is a hit with the English majors—who feel that the class now lives up to its name.

During my second year I started an English major Facebook page in order to post information about advising hours, upcoming courses, and registration deadlines, as well as occasional literary trivia or possible discussion questions.  Although intended initially only as a fun way to communicate with students who didn’t check email regularly, of which there were many, the page ended up fostering more curriculum development.  “What sort of English classes do you wish our department offered?” I posted now and then, wondering if any ideas for new courses might come forward that I could share with my department’s Undergraduate Studies Committee, of which I am a default member as advisor.

While many of the students’ suggestions wouldn’t fly with my colleagues (classes on the Harry Potter series, for example, or The Hunger Games or Divergent trilogies), one idea that got posted a few times by different students did seem possible—i.e., a class on literature, sexuality, and gender.  “We need to queer it up in here,” one student joked, a comment that mirrored the comfort level with sexuality I’d already perceived among my fiction writing students, a few of whom always turned in stories with gay protagonists—stories that their classmates accepted without question.

As a playwright and performer who tours with a one-man show about gay experience, as well as someone who has published gay-themed fiction and nonfiction, I once again felt charged to fill a very real curriculum gap that students revealed to me through my work as advisor.  After some email swapping with the Undergraduate Studies Committee, I approached my department chair about developing another course, this one completely from scratch, called “Queer Literature.”  The resulting class, which includes work from gay, lesbian, bi, and trans authors, will soon be offered for a second time to a full house, pulling in majors from many fields—even some from outside of the humanities.  Adding it to “The Bible as Literature” has meant letting go of teaching fiction writing altogether, but as my department has numerous other faculty members able to teach such courses, students have not felt the lack.

To my surprise, advising has also influenced how I teach.  After three years of ongoing advising sessions with approximately 500 advisees, I can no longer write a syllabus, assign a reading or writing assignment, or even step into a classroom without thinking of comments students have shared about their professors—particularly the complaints.  My fellow faculty members may complain about students, but what I take home at the end of the day as advisor are the students’ recurring complaints about faculty members.  “Dr. So-and-So never sticks to her syllabus,” I hear, or “I have no idea what Dr. So-and-So wants in papers,” or “Dr. So-and-So spends half the class time talking about his politics instead of the reading.”

Although students are only acting on the human need to vent when making such comments, using the therapeutic atmosphere of an advising office to claim some power over their experiences, they have inadvertently—and negatively—revealed a list of best teaching practices that I now make an effort to employ.  Some of these practices include providing a detailed syllabus from which I do my best not to stray; communicating clearly about classroom expectations and grading policies; returning written work promptly, with precise feedback; and, perhaps most importantly, entering each class session with enthusiasm for both the material under discussion and the students themselves.

While these best practices are hardly groundbreaking, and in fact should be standard for every instructor in every college course, advising has made me more conscious of consistently implementing them—as well as more conscious of their effect on student performance.  In last year’s “Queer Literature,” for example, students read eight books, a thick course packet full of a variety of material, and produced at least 23 pages of written work, though a number of students produced more.  A fellow English faculty friend from another school warned that the students would punish me in evaluations for being such a taskmaster (as he put it), but they did just the opposite.  Many cited one or more of the previously listed practices as enabling them to meet the course’s demands, and at least one student wrote, “I wish we could have read more!”  (The perfect evaluation for any English course, in my opinion.)

What all of the above has taught me is that the divide that I imagined at the start of this job between my roles as advisor and instructor was just that—my imagination.  Rather, advising and instruction can be intimately related, with advising providing access to unguarded student opinions that have the possibility of informing both curriculum development and teaching practices.  If advisors are willing to hear them, advisees may pinpoint gaps in curriculum offerings that the advisor or another faculty member could fill, reveal a new teaching practice or practices that the advisor-instructor could adopt, or encourage the advisor-instructor to implement current practices more consciously.  Advisors without teaching loads could also make use of student insights, perhaps sharing them at a departmental faculty meeting or with a departmental curriculum committee, or in a report to their chair.  Through such actions, advisors can expand their roles within departments, making use of their unique connection to students to benefit the larger whole—and to allow students a larger voice in their education.

R. Dale Smith
Coordinator of Undergraduate Advising and Instructor of English
Department of English
Virginia Commonwealth University
rdsmith@vcu.edu

Cite this article using APA style as: Smith, R.D. (2014, September). Advising, curriculum development, and teaching: Making the connection. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]


VPbanner.jpgA Faculty Advisor’s Journey

Carmela McIntire, Florida International University

Carmelia McIntire.jpgWhen I began as faculty advisor at Florida International University (FIU) in 1999, I knew little about advising. In those days before the advent of our now two-year-old Graduation Success Initiative, with its complement of professional advisors, I received no training. My predecessor simply explained that I would be helping students find the courses needed to complete the B.A. in English. For help with matters beyond department purview, I could call on Fred, the indispensable assistant dean of advising in our college. Regulations abounded, unknown to me previously as a faculty member; I consulted Fred a lot! I had much to learn, informally and on the fly.

In addition to mastering policies and procedures, I came to realize, as I had not before, that advising is a form of teaching, that I could draw on my decades in the classroom. In all teaching, we need to find out where learning should begin; now I was learning about the students in a different context. Listening actively, I discovered that students want and need to talk about themselves: where they were going, where they would fit–in the university, in careers, in the world.

Our first-generation-in-college students (I was one myself) often don’t know specifically what to ask, but they know they need guidance. How could we help them figure out the questions, to know themselves and their abilities as they grow into the larger community even as they remain deeply rooted in family and home culture? I listened a lot. I brought my teaching experience to bear as I reviewed their grades and academic progress: where were the high grades? When and how did individual students learn best? Which classes might best remedy their weaknesses and maximize their strengths? One-on-one conversations focused on their coursework, certainly, but also on what they could learn about themselves as learners, and how that might inform their knowledge about their strengths and challenges, their career aspirations, and their definitions of academic and post-graduation goals.

FIU, growing steadily toward its current enrollment of 50,000 students, often seems overwhelming, impersonal; the road to degree completion is not always clearly marked. Surely that prompted a student to tell me years ago that FIU stands for “Finishing Is Unlikely.” Meeting with students, then, meant helping them to navigate the university, referring them to the appropriate campus resources–Counseling and Psychological Services, the Disability Resource Center, our various learning centers–as well as negotiating bureaucratic tangles. I learned also to work with the growing staff of advisors in our college and in undergraduate education to stay current regardingt all the tools and services available both to advisors and to students.

Careful listening led me to see that I could not passively await students coming into the office. I worked to foster a departmental culture of advising, raising faculty as well as student awareness of its importance, reaching out as much as possible: asking faculty to announce in classes the necessity of advising during enrollment periods each semester; sending out important reminders of dates and deadlines via our undergraduate listserv and, more recently, Facebook pages; contacting our majors through the students of Sigma Tau Delta, the English Honor Society. I also developed “Advising Events,” which were offered two or three times each semester.

Begun almost five years ago, Advising Events feature guests from the English Department, the university, and from various professions as a way to inform students, informally, about academic and career possibilities. The recurring question, “If I don’t want to teach, what can I do with my degree?” has prompted the invitation of speakers from Career Services, the Center for Leadership and Service, the College of Law, and department alumni from law, teaching, public relations and advertising, business, and publishing. Panels of assistant professors have spoken candidly about the realities of earning doctorates in English and finding employment. Advising Events have also addressed the specific needs of transfer students as they make the transition to FIU, usually from local two-year institutions. I wrote materials now distributed to those students on their own campuses, advising on how best to prepare for the English major, emphasizing, as always, the need for regular meetings with advisors.

In a project initiated last spring, our department Digital Writing Studio (student interns working with a faculty director) has begun creating a series of video presentations designed to address advising issues. The first video features interviews with now-successful students who transferred to FIU, sharing with their successors on how best to make the transition. We know that student voices are powerful adjuncts to advisors’ counsel. Currently in progress: advice on how to succeed in courses offered online, from both faculty and students.

In spring 2012, just as FIU was beginning its Graduation Success Initiative, preparing to hire full-time professional advisors, the university offered me the opportunity to attend the 2012 NACADA Region IV Conference on the FIU campus. It was exhilarating to enter a vibrant, intellectually engaged community whose commitment to students was the heart, soul, and brain of the enterprise. And while I have met–and now work with and learn from–professional advisors whose deep expertise is essential as we help our students toward graduation, I am grateful to see that my own work and experience as a long-time faculty member, one who teaches and advises, is highly valued by the NACADA community.

Carmela McIntire
Associate Professor
Department of English
Florida International University.
mcintire@fiu.edu

Cite this article using APA style as: McIntire, C. (2014, September). A faculty advisor’s journey. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]. 


VPbanner.jpgBridging the Gap between Academics and Advising

Olga Salinas, Jamie Jensen, and Uwe Reischl, Boise State University

Olga Salinas.jpgThe role of professional advisors across colleges and universities has gained recognition and is seen as “integral to fulfilling the teaching and learning mission of higher education” (NACADA, 2006). Yet, there remains an ambiguity about our profession and our skill sets. Faculty actively seek advisor assistance in dealing with at-risk students or student issues, but many would be hard pressed to describe the advisor role in recruitment, retention, and student development.  Jamie Jensen.jpgCollege and university administrators wrestle with the larger issues of institutional visions and missions, but have yet to fully visualize the advisor skill sets as a partner in achieving the institutional higher purpose (Faust, 2009).

Uwe Reischl.jpgIn a standard university model, advising is external to academic content.  Advising offices may have a mission and an advising syllabus, but contact with students occurs within our offices.  Students seek assurance from advisors regarding academic progress and related issues, as well as strategies in course planning. At times, advisors are also resource experts linking students to internal or external support services. If time permits, advisors may be able to introduce a topic for consideration in future planning.  As helpful as they try to be, and as visible Advising Centers may be, this remains a passive method. Even when advisors are in the classroom, their time is limited and targeted on specific reasons, such as sharing information.  In addition, they are often addressing students in a first-year setting, not the needs of students who have moved past the first stages of student development and are starting to face the results of their educational efforts and futures beyond graduation (Cox, 2007).

To change the nature of the game, we implemented an embedded model representing a proactive approach to advising and student development into a large upper-division undergraduate public health lecture class.  The presentation of public health content was interwoven with student development assignments that included activities such as personality assessment, aptitude surveys, and critical thinking exercises directly related to public health career opportunities.  This approach brings two key areas (academics and advising) together in alignment and partnership in one setting: the classroom. The classroom becomes an enhanced center for learning about the subject matter and about the self in relation to the subject matter.  Advising and student development content is intentionally linked with advanced academic content, creating a forum for learning that has relevance on multiple levels for the students.

The reasons for embarking on this strategy included the following: 

  • First, it aligned with a campus-wide goal to create and sustain a vibrant, intellectual culture that fosters interaction across disciplinary lines between all members of the campus community (faculty, staff, and students) to enrich the student experience (Boise State University, 2009).
  • Second, this collaborative effort capitalizes on the strengths of the key players: the subject matter and instructional expertise of the faculty member, and the student development and advising expertize of the advisors. 
  • Third, it was an effort to enhance the live classroom experience and reinforce the merits of a classroom setting as a learning environment. Through a variety of meetings that included brainstorming, debate, and even abstract art, an embedded approach to advising within academic content was born.

The benefits for advising in such an embedded model are substantial.  A change in daily work priorities, a new time commitment and schedule, increased visibility on campus, and an even greater emphasis on interpersonal skills can transpire. While advisor availability in some office hours is important, much of the advisor time and energy can be directed towards building a network of faculty who share the vision for an embedded advising model and jointly creating the combined content curriculum. The class time leading and participating in learning experiences can also be a significant commitment, as well as the time that is allocated to providing feedback to students outside of the classroom.  However, an added advantages to this approach is that advisors have the potential to reach all students in the class, not just those students who self-select into advising.

The benefits for faculty are also substantial.  It takes creativity and effort to bring in a curriculum partner and restructure both the content and teaching technique.   However, it also means that there is corresponding built-in support in class to address student questions. 

The institution also gains from this approach.  This collaborative effort expands the knowledge of both faculty and advisors through a type of cross-training.  It allows faculty to witness the breadth and depth of the advising function.  In turn, advisors hone their instructional skills by participating alongside not only an expert in subject matter, but also in the craft of teaching.  This combined effort brings a new and enjoyable energy to the learning experience for all involved. The learning and work environment becomes a place of ideas, exploration, and growth. 

Ultimately, the students benefit most of all. Faculty and advisors become the institution’s representatives who are dedicated to student success in their field of study. Their alliance exhibits professional respect for varied expertise, models interpersonal skills, and demonstrates the impact of an effective work-place team. In addition, in this world of ever increasing distractions, the value of the student on-campus experience is maximized.  The embedded method ensures that students are building a larger network and becoming more actively engaged in their learning experience and exploring professional opportunities in their field before graduation.

Granted, this is a long-term in endeavor, with the potential to truly alter the role of advising and advisors across campuses everywhere.  However, our model responds to the challenge faced by colleges and universities to “create a culture of shared purpose” (Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2007).  

Olga Salinas
Academic Advisor
College of Education
Boise State University
osalinas@boisestate.edu

Jamie Jensen
Director of Academic Advising
College of Education
Boise State University
jamiejensen2@boisestate.edu

Uwe Reischl
Professor
College of Health Science
Boise State University
ureischl@boisestate.edu

References 

Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2007). College learning for the new global century. (Report from the National Leadership Council for Liberal Education and America’s Promise).  Retrieved from http://www.aacu.org/leap/documents/GlobalCentury_final.pdf 

Boise State University. (2009). Charting the course: A strategic vision for Boise State University. Retrieved from http://academics.boisestate.edu/chartingthecourse/files/2009/02/strategicvision.pdf

Cox, L. (2007). Action plan: Advisors in the classroom. National Academic Advising Association  Summer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/portals/0/Events/SI/ActionPlans/2007AdvisorsintheClassroomActionPlanCoxEasternKentuckyUniv.pdf

Faust, D. (2009, Sept. 6). The university’s crisis of purpose.  New York Times, BR 19.

National Academic Advising Association (NACADA). (2006). Concept of academic advising. Retrieved from the NACADA Clearinghouse of Academic Advising Resources website at http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Concept-of-Academic-Advising.aspx

Cite this article using APA style as: Salinas, O., Jensen, J., & Reischl, U. (2014, September). Bridging the gap between academics and advising: Incorporating student development into a large upper division lecture course. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]


Using Reflective Writing to Enrich Academic Advising

David Gruber and Julia Moffitt, Brandeis University

NOTE: This article was adapted from a presentation at the 2014 NACADA Region 1 Conference (March 19, 2014)

Gruber and Moffitt.jpgThe work of advising often centers on helping students engage in self-reflection. We want them to reflect on their choices of major or classes, on their long-term goals, on their study habits, and – when things go wrong – on their mistakes. As academic advisors, we typically emphasize conversation as our primary mode of reflection, which makes sense given that most of us spend our time meeting one-on-one with students. Most of the time conversation is a reliable mode for getting students to respond to the questions we want to ask, and want them to ask, about their academic lives. But writing to reflect creates an opportunity to take such reflection further. We believe that reflective writing can be a helpful tool to enrich academic advising, one that can help our advisees to do the work of self-reflection that is essential to their development and academic success.

Why Writing?

Writing creates time to think.  Writing forces us to be alone with our thoughts, to follow our ideas from beginning to end and articulate them clearly and cogently, and to attend to the logic – or illogic – that underlies what we say about our actions and decisions.

Reflective writing can help us connect with students who might not be immediately comfortable talking openly in our offices, or with students who may not feel ready to delve deeper until just before the clock runs out in an advising meeting. It can take time for students to feel comfortable in the advising conversation, and to open up when they are grappling with a difficult question or situation. Writing can give students additional time and space to wrestle with challenging experiences. 

Even for students who do engage easily in conversational reflection, there are occasions and problems that call for a continuous and deep engagement with the reflective process that doesn’t always fit with the realities of work-flow in busy advising offices, and for which reflective writing could be appropriate. 

Writing connects ideas and goals between sessions and semesters.  Writing also has practical benefits for us as advisors – asking students to write and bring their work back to a future meeting allows us to bridge advising sessions and gives us a guide for returning the conversation to pressing topics and concerns. Moreover, it primes the student to be ready to pick up the conversation, and often in a more useful way given that they have devoted some thought to the topic between sessions.

Additionally, writing can serve as a framework for long-term goal-setting. In advising a probation student, for instance, we can refer back to their petition or other reflective document to remind ourselves what the student thought he or she should do to be more successful in the future. In our advising sessions we can explore whether the student made the changes (or why not), and how things have gone since. Preserved examples of reflective writing can also be useful as a record of student success.

Below, we briefly define and discuss the utility of two modes of reflective writing: formal and informal. Each mode provides different but important ways to use writing to deepen our advising conversations.

Formal Writing

Formal writing is the mode that, as advisors, we encounter most often; for example, students may need to write petition letters for policy exceptions or to appeal academic standing. Since students write these letters with an emphasis on product and outcome, it’s not always obvious how to encourage students to reflect through formal writing.

However, when students have opportunities to revise formal writing, and advisors ask questions that push the students to go deeper into the ideas in their texts, formal writing can allow students to reflect on themselves as learners. For this reason, we always ask our students to go through at least one, and ideally two or three drafts of a petition. When students revise, their final drafts contain richer self-reflection.

Below are a few methods to foster reflection through the revision process:

1. Encourage the student to write the first draft for him- or herself.  Students often feel vulnerable when writing about a difficult semester. If they can focus less on how the writing will sound to an audience, at least at first, they may be more inclined to write openly and honestly about the challenges they’ve faced.

2. Help students focus on the process. Students tend to focus on the outcome when writing about an experience (e.g., “I failed my class”); however, the key to reflection is to understand the process that led to the outcome (e.g., “I slept through many of my classes and was too nervous to approach my professor about the situation”). Advisors can ask questions such as “What were the different factors that contributed to failing the class?” which will help students dig deeper and think about what actually happened.

3. Ask questions to help set specific goals. Goals that are as broad as “I will pass all of my courses” can’t be broken down into manageable parts. When students revise drafts of formal writing, we try to elicit specific statements about actions that students can take, using questions like these:

“How do you plan to get to class on time?”

“What will you do if you miss a class?”

“How will you ask professors for help understanding assignments?”

“What campus resources will you use to help complete your work?”

“Can you set early deadlines to help you finish assignments on time?” 

Again, when students revise formal writing assignments such as petitions, advisors can refer back to them even after the petition process is over to help students track their goals, make clear the students’ successes, and give them direction for improvement.

Informal writing

Informal writing can offer some of the least stressful and potentially most creative ways to bring writing into advising. Informal writing differs from formal in being “low stakes;” that is, the writing is not evaluated or graded, or even necessarily read. In giving a student an informal writing prompt, it’s important to stress that, while they are expected to produce some reflective writing for the next meeting, their work won’t be read unless they choose to share it. The point is for the student to engage in the process of reflection through writing, rather than produce a product.    

Informal writing is valuable because it allows students to engage with an advisor’s questions at a time and place of their own choosing, and to sit alone with their thoughts and answers, while also meeting the responsibility of responding to our questions. Informal writing exercises can produce fascinating and revealing results and add depth and nuance to the follow-up discussions that we have with students after they share what they learned from their writing process.  

Here are a few examples of informal writing exercises we have used, covering two categories advisors commonly address:

1. To help choose classes or identify academic interests:
  • Write a letter to a parent or friend describing the things you have most enjoyed learning this term. Tell them what you hope to learn about next.
  • Describe your dream class (to discuss possible majors or to understand ideal teaching style for a student).
  • Throughout the semester, keep a journal or a list of ideas that are exciting to you, whether they are from class sessions, conversations with peers, or extracurricular events. What themes or concepts do these have in common?
  • Describe your approach to keeping up with world events. What topics do you follow with the most interest?

2. To help select majors, develop capstone projects, or connect college work to post-college goals:

  • What questions do you still want to ask in college? What do you hope to continue learning about after college?
  • Develop a list of projects you’d like to do before graduating and describe your favorite three in detail. Find faculty who teach courses that would be useful for your project(s), and talk to them about the kinds of work scholars in their fields do. After these meetings, which fields seem most exciting as potential majors?
  • Describe/list/draw what you’d like to be doing 10 years from now. Then write about it: what are the skills, knowledge, and experiences that would make fulfilling that vision possible?

As can be seen from these examples, informal reflection is, as a mode, extremely versatile. Informal writing doesn’t even necessarily have to take forms as typical as essays, journal entries, or freewrites. Some students might find it easier to reflect by making lists, drawing, diagramming, or using online formats like Twitter or Tumblr (where they could write briefly about links or images that speak to their interests or individual challenges). The informal mode, with its flexibility, lets us design prompts that will help each advisee, whatever their skills and interests, to reflect about themselves beyond the confines of the advising office.

David Gruber
Academic Advisor
Academic Services
Brandeis University
dgruber@brandeis.edu

Julia Moffitt
Academic Advisor
Academic Services
Brandeis University
jmoffitt@brandeis.edu

Cite this article using APA style as: Gruber, D. & Moffitt, J. (2014, September). Using reflective writing to enrich academic advising. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]


VPbanner.jpgArt Matters in Advising

Diane W. Bowers and Mary Trent, College of Charleston

Diane Bowers.jpgMary Trent.jpgEach fall semester for the last six years, our centralized Academic Advising and Planning Center has organized ART MATTERS:  A Student Art Exhibition.  Our interest in this exhibition developed from an appreciation of the creativity of our students, many of whom come from diverse majors and have wide-ranging career aspirations.  Our show is open and inclusive: we accept art from any student, any major, any medium.  Our open exhibition acceptance policy demonstrates our non-judgmental philosophy and our commitment to celebrating diversity.

We display the art in our main lobby and along the walls of the extended hallway into which all of our offices open.  Near the deadline, as the artwork starts to roll in and we carry it down the hall to await installation, the excitement builds.  Our staff gets glimpses of the vibrant, diverse pieces of art that we will live with for the next year.  Over the next few days, individual advisors begin to identify pieces that speak to them—a painting, a photograph, or a drawing that they would like to see outside of their office every day.  When we take down the previous year’s installation and all the walls are bare, our Center becomes shockingly stark and diminished.  Without the art, the walls feel institutional and cold.  But as soon as we hang the pieces of the new exhibition, the hall is energized by our students’ creativity and gains a bright, fresh look.  The ensuing Opening Reception of ART MATTERS is always an anticipated and lively event, complete with a student DJ and refreshments.   Students, faculty, and staff from around the college look forward to this event every year, and it is well attended.

This year we took the ART MATTERS exhibition to a new level by featuring a special Science/Art project, which was prompted by our awareness of students not having many outlets for exploring interests that traverse the disciplinary boundaries of science and art.   We paired six carefully selected student artists with a diverse group of six science and math professors. We charged the artists with learning about their professor’s research and, ultimately, creating a visual interpretation of that research.  At an early phase of the project, we provided students with some general tips about how to communicate with the professors and how to begin conducting and documenting their research.  The artists were very excited by this interdisciplinary opportunity to connect their interests in both art and science, something not afforded in traditional studio art classes.  One was a double major in physics/studio art, one in biology/studio art; one was undeclared and interested in computer science; and the others were studio art majors inspired by the natural world.   The science professors also had personal connections to art and were delighted to participate in a collaborative project beyond their disciplines.  These collaborations initiated new research and mentorship connections that would not have otherwise happened.

The resulting works of art were impressive—beautiful, dynamic, intelligently conceived—and each one conveyed the spirit of the professor’s research in interesting and unique ways.   Our office held a companion event during the spring semester in which the six professors each gave a five-minute talk about their research, followed by their student artists speaking for five minutes about their creative process and intention.  Students, faculty, and staff all enjoyed the event and came away from it impressed by the powerful connections made across campus.

How does featuring student art relate specifically to advising?

Incorporating student art into advising adds several high-impact practices to our developmental advising model: positive first-year interactions with college personnel, diverse learning experiences, collaborative projects, and undergraduate research.

The students in our exhibition feel a sense of pride seeing their art displayed on the walls of a campus advising office.  They feel that they have a home here and that their creativity is celebrated.  Several of the artists in the fall exhibit were students in their first semester in college.  They had never been in an art exhibition before and were very excited to be included.  This year, the student whose art we selected to feature on the exhibit poster was a first-year student from out of state.  Her parents proudly told their friends about their daughter’s experience, which led to a positive impression of our Center and of the college.  Advisors have also found that the exhibit presents a unique opportunity to engage with students and advisees.  Speaking about art and viewing the exhibit is sometimes an alternative way to connect with a student who otherwise may not be very forthcoming.

One of the artists in the Science/Art project was selected not only for his artistic ability but also because he was a first-semester transfer student, a student population often identified as at-risk.  He later expressed to us that being involved in this project during his first semester at his new school helped him feel included and showed him that people cared about him, his values, and his transition.  Valuing our students’ individuality through art serves to create deeper connections not only to specific advisors and our advising center, but to the institution as a whole.  And, research has shown that deeper connections ultimately lead to greater retention and student success (Nutt, 2003).

The Science/Art project added yet another high-impact practice by linking students and faculty  through research that would have been unlikely to otherwise occur.  Making these connections represents our advising philosophy in action—we talk with students about different academic disciplines, connecting ideas, meeting with professors, the importance of research, and how extra-curricular activities can complement coursework.  The six students involved in the science project benefited from having a forum in which to explore their interest in science and art, exposing their work to the public, and writing and presenting to a group of people. 

Beyond the effect of the high-impact practices, the fall and spring events have also increased the visibility of our Center and the value of advising on campus.  They brought science faculty and college administrators to our Center who had never ventured over before, and this gave us an additional opportunity to talk with them about how we work with students.  Several of the science departments are now interested in acquiring these works of art to display in their department offices once the exhibition closes.  Science professors (even chairs of departments) are already requesting to be chosen as faculty for next year’s event.  Consequently, this endeavor enabled us to establish a connection with the science and math faculty beyond our official advising liaison relationships.

The event has also been valuable to our own staff.  Advisors find that the opening reception brings a sense of energy to our office.   Its impact continues in more subtle ways throughout the year as advisors appreciate the colors, shapes, sense of movement, and ideas represented in the works of art.  Looking at a favorite piece of art after a long or tough advising session can be therapeutic, and the exhibit as a whole can be inspiring to view during everyday walks down the hallway to the photocopy machine.  Sadly, our offices do not have windows, but the photographs, paintings, drawings, prints, or sculptures often serve as a visually exciting alternative “window” to the world.

The ART MATTERS exhibition has helped our office work toward many of our goals at the micro and macro levels.  It exemplifies our commitment to developing individual relationships with students.  It increases creative connections and goodwill with faculty and staff across the campus.  It promotes the values of a well-rounded, liberal arts education.  Finally, we surmise that its high-impact practices impact the likelihood of student retention.

Art Matters.jpgDiane W. Bowers
Assistant Director
Academic Advising and Planning Center
College of Charleston
bowersd@cofc.edu

Mary Trent
Academic Advisor
Academic Advising and Planning Center
College of Charleston
trentms@cofc.edu

Susanna Brylawski, “Untitled,” 2013,
oil and chalk on wood, reprinted with permission

Reference

Nutt, Charlie L. (2003) Academic advising and student retention and persistence.  Retrieved from the NACADA Clearinghouse of Academic Advising Resources Web site: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/articleType/ArticleView/articleid/%20636/article.aspx   

Cite this article using APA style as: Bowers, D.W., & Trent, M. (2014, September). Art matters in advising. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]


VPbanner.jpgAdvising plus Texting equals Success

Kathy Pawelek and Aleyda Cantu, Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Pawelek and Cantu.jpgBecause we live in an era of technological dependency, texting has become an integral part of our daily communications with friends, family, and co-workers.  Why has texting not become a necessary form of communication with students? Texting allows advisors instant communication with students. In the average student’s email account, an advisor’s email can be sandwiched between social media updates, ads, student organization information, and faculty emails. Advisors at Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TAMUK) utilize texting to push through the inbox clutter, getting pertinent information into each student’s hands.

Incorporating texting into our communicating bag of tricks does not require personal cell phone usage or budgeting for a pre-paid cell phone; this is because the text originates as an email on the sender’s end. A unique email address is created using the student’s phone number and cell phone provider. Each cell provider has a unique email domain that is available to research through the provider’s website. The phone number is paired with the provider email domain to create an email address that works like any regular email address (i.e. cellnumber@providers.domain) only the receiver receives a text by phone, not an email. For example, Student’s phone number, 123.123.4567, is attached to AT&T’s specified domain creating a unique email address, 1231234567@txt.att.net. Instantly, Student receives a text and begins corresponding with her advisor, creating quicker responses and resolutions to issues.

The texting email address can be used in Outlook or any web-based email by simply composing a new email and inserting the email address in the To/Recipient box. The message is sent like a regular email, in which case, the body of the email will be seen as a text on the student’s phone. The sent email will appear in the advisor’s sent mail folder. The student responds to the text, as with any other text sent from another cell phone, sending an email back to the advisor. Conversations among advisors and students can take place in real time, with the additional convenience of preserving each conversation on email for documentation and referencing.

Authorization should be requested from every student before texts are sent. Creating a text authorization form for each student to fill out during orientation or advising is a good way to request and document authorization. Through trial and error, our form has evolved to include specific language outlining the intended purpose of the texting, which is used for conveying advising-related information by advisors only, not the university as a whole. We have also found it beneficial to include a statement for students to acknowledge that standard text messaging rates may apply for the text message received.

A spreadsheet or contact list can become a quick reference to reduce the time it takes to email the text.  Advisors with large cohorts or rotating students may find a spreadsheet with relevant student information more efficient, including a column for texting email.  Advisors with smaller advising loads may benefit from creating email address book contacts for each student. This method of texting allows for the advisor to send a mass text, one email to multiple students at one time.  Using the spreadsheet or address book contacts makes mass texting easy and efficient, because we can send an email to 10 or 200 students in a matter of seconds.  The added benefit is that each individual email address receives its own text message, allowing for confidentiality and privacy within the mass text.

Texting has become a preferred choice of communication among students.  For advisors, it is a professional, cost effective, and efficient means of communication that delivers immediate answers.  It does require a little maintenance.  For example, advisors must ensure that there are no changes to the student’s cell phone number and/or cell provider; otherwise texts may be sent to a random stranger. However, the majority of the time students will contact an advisor to update any changes with cell phone number or provider.

While there are a few drawbacks to this texting method, there are simple, quick solutions that can easily be adapted into a regular practice when emailing.  The email to text method does not support attachments, pictures, or lengthy messages.  It is important to keep the text short.  This can be achieved by sending a text message that has a quick reference to the topic and state that details have been emailed.  The student still receives instant information and notification except in a condensed version.

One of the major disadvantages lies in the verification of identity of the student.  Oftentimes the reply from the student will not have a name, student ID number, or history of previous email/text within the email. Unless a cell number is memorized for each student, or the email address listed as a contact, the advisor may not recognize the student responding. In these situations, the spreadsheet comes in handy, because the advisor can do a quick search for the email address.  The quickest solution for immediate identification would be to carbon copy the student’s email address, especially an institution-designated address.  Depending on the cell phone provider, the email response from the student will include the carbon copy.  After a couple of friendly reminders, the student will make it a habit of verifying their identity, knowing it will help them get a rapid solution or response. In the grand scheme of things, it is a good practice for students to maintain professionalism in all correspondence, even texting, as it is swiftly becoming an official form of communication.

Texting has been utilized for approximately two years at TAMUK.  There are several texting options available through web or social media sites.  Many of the options do not include the capability for response texting from the student or mass texting. The selling points for this method lie in the capability for mass text as an individual confidential message, efficiency of using current email, and the ability for the student to correspond in real time with the advisor.  Advisors will be forfeiting the ability to send pictures, attachments, and lengthy messages, and may receive inconsistent previous email history, but will benefit greatly from the user-friendly, professional, and simple method of using email-to-text communication. Overall, the fact that an advisor is able to proactively reach out to multiple or individual students in real time to break the barriers of unanswered emails and voicemails, including those students who do not have immediate access to internet or cell phone data usage, outweighs the cons of texting.

Texting has proven to be a successful correspondence tool in building trust, reliability and confidence in the advisor-student relationship. The advantages plus the simple, adaptable solutions to its short list of cons makes it a favorite form of communication among advisors and students. Texting is one of many proactive advising resources TAMUK Center for Student Success advisors offer that continue to aid in creating a student success-oriented environment with booming graduation and retention rates.   

Kathy Pawelek
Academic Advisor I
Center for Student Success/College of Arts & Sciences
Texas A&M University-Kingsville
kathy.pawelek@tamuk.edu

Aleyda Cantu
Academic Advisor III
Center for Student Success/College of Arts & Sciences
Texas A&M University-Kingsville
aleyda.cantu@tamuk.edu


Cite this article using APA style as: Pawelek, K. & Cantu, A. (2014, September). Advising plus texting equals success. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here] 

Academic Advising Records on Google Drive: Sharing, Accuracy, and Accessibility

Lily R. Liang, Dong Jeong, Briana Wellman, LaVonne Manning, David Barnett, Chen Li and Byunggu Yu, University of the District of Columbia

Lili Liang.jpgThe way that advising records are maintained and updated has a big impact on the effectiveness, efficiency, and integrity of advising. In the past, hard copies of advising sheets were used to facilitate advising at most institutions. Each semester, before advising, students filled out their advising sheets with the classes they had taken and the ones they planned to take in the next semester. These sheets, together with any notes from the advisors, are called advising records.

Dong Jeong.jpgAdvising records need to be updated constantly. They also need to be shared, not only between students and advisors but also with the program directors and the department chair for graduation clearance. Students need autonomy to update their own advising sheets according to their academic progress, while the accuracy and integrity of the records should be maintained. This presents a big challenge for updating and sharing.

Briana Wellman.jpgThis is especially challenging for urban universities, such as University of the District of Columbia (UDC) in Washington D.C. At UDC, most of the students and faculty commute. Many of UDC students work full-time, have families and/or enroll part-time. In fall 2012, 57% of students were enrolled part-time. It is challenging for these students to meet face to face with their academic advisors. Often, advising is done via email or phone. In these cases, hard cLaVonne Manning.jpgopies of student records are hard to access and maintain. When an advisor does not have access to student records at the time of advising, the efficiency and effectiveness of advising can be jeopardized and the advising communication including recommendations may not be documented. Electronic advising records have higher accessibility to a certain degree. However, unless they are stored online, an advisor away from his/her office may still not be able to access them.

With the development of technology, nowadays we have access to many new technology products.  Google Drive (previously named Google Docs) is a free platform provided by Google for creating and sharing documents online. Because of its ease of document- sharing, it is now being used more and more in many areas, including academics. Schwenn (2010) pointed out its advantages as one of the interactive web applications to be used for academic advising.  A few departments/colleges have started to use it foChen Li.jpgr advising-related activities.  For example, a faculty member in the Department of Criminal Justice at Radford University uses Google Drive to host an advising sign-up form. (See http://www.radford.edu/content/chbs/home/criminal-justice/resources/academic-advising.html) The Hospitality Department at Austin Community College uses Google Drive to host their academic advising form (See http://www.austincc.edu/hospmgmt/current.html).  The School of Education at Argosy University, Atlanta, Byunggu Yu.jpguses Google Drive to host advisor assignment information.

In the Department of Computer Science and Information Technology at UDC, we developed, on Google Drive, a departmental Academic Advising Record System. We decided to use the Google Drive platform not only because it meets the previously stated challenges, but also because it is free and many students and faculty already have Google accounts.

Major Components 

Our Google Drive Academic Advising Record System has the following components:

Advising assignment lists:

  • Advising assignment sheet for faculty: includes contact information for each student and identifies his/her assigned advisor. This document is shared among all faculty in the department
  • Advising assignment sheet for students: contains only the names of the student names and their advisors. This document is shared among all faculty and all students in the department.

Templates of advising sheets: Each template is a form with a suggested course sequence of a particular program. A sample advising sheet can be found here.

Advising records of students: A folder is created for each student in the department, under the folder of the student's program (BSCS, BSIT or MSCS). Inside the student's folder are the following two files:

  • Advising sheet. This document outlines the program and keeps track of courses the student has been taking. Both the student and the advisor have editing access.
  • Advisor's notes. This document is for the advisor to note his/her consent, recommendation, etc. The student does not have editing privileges.

Instructions for students: Step-by-step instructions for students who use the system for the first time.

Instructions for faculty: Step-by-step instructions for faculty who use the system for the first time.

Record Creation and Maintenance

All student records are under the ownership of the department's Google account.  Faculty and students utilize the following procedure:

  • Faculty and students refer to the shared assignment list for their advisees/advisors.
  • To establish their advising records on Google Drive, students create their own advising sheets by saving a copy of the advising sheet template of their program and filling it out with what courses have taken and what they plan to take. They give the ownership of these saved files to the department account. Then the program directors, who have access to the department account, move the sheets to the students’ folders, to which the advisors have access.
  • The student makes an advising appointment with the advisor. The advisor reviews the shared sheet before or during the appointment and makes notes at the end of the appointment.
  • For the next semester, the student will only need to revise the existing advising sheet with updated grades (if available at the time), add the classes he or she plans to take, and make an appointment for advising.

Clear communication and sufficient technical support are essential for the transition to the new system to succeed. To make the instructions to students as clear as possible, we first tested our instructions with a few students before we sent it out to all. We revised the instructions according to the feedback of these students. After that, we asked all graduate assistants to create and fill their own advising sheets on Google Drive following the instructions and provided assistance as needed. This prepared them to provide technical assistance to other students in the department. Only then did we send out the announcement and instructions to all other students.

After a couple of advising periods, we have gradually transitioned to the new Academic Advising Record System on Google Drive. Firstly, this system significantly improved the sharing of records among the students, faculty, program directors, and the department chair. Secondly, it improved the accuracy of advising records. Now students can constantly update their shared advising sheets according to their academic progress, while only the advisors have the privilege to edit advisor notes. Thirdly, it improved the accessibility of advising records. Now students and faculty can access the records anytime from anywhere. This greatly reduced the time and location constraints of advising, and the system has improved the integrity and efficiency of academic advising without added cost.

Lily R. Liang
Associate Professor and Graduate Program Director
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of the District of Columbia
lliang@udc.edu

Dong Jeong
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of the District of Columbia

Briana Wellman
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of the District of Columbia

LaVonne Manning
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of the District of Columbia

David Barnett
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of the District of Columbia

Chen Li
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of the District of Columbia

Byunggu Yu
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
University of the District of Columbia

Reference

Schwenn, C.C. (2010). Interactive Web applications and their use in academic advising. Retrieved from the NACADA Clearinghouse of Academic Advising Resources Web site: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Interactive-Web-Applications.aspx

Cite this article using APA style as: Liang, L.R., Jeong, D., Wellman, B., Manning, L., Barnett, F., Li, C., & Yu, B. (2014, September). Academic advising records on google drive: Sharing, accuracy, and accessibility. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]


 

Negotiating the Multiple Roles of Being an Advisor and Doctoral Student

Melissa L. Johnson, University of Florida
Laura A. Pasquini, University of North Texas

Editor’s Note:  There is still time to register for the 2014 NACADA Annual Conference, which will be held October 8-11. Join us in Minneapolis!

Melissa Johnson.jpgLaura Pasquini.jpgAt the 2013 NACADA Annual Conference in Salt Lake City, several full-time advisors at various stages of their doctoral journey served on a panel for a standing room only crowd of advising graduate students and professionals. Panelists included Sarah Craddock (Colorado State University), Melissa Johnson (University of Florida), Erin Justyna (Texas Tech University), and Laura Pasquini (University of North Texas). The session, entitled “How to Hack Your PhD: Being a Doctoral Student and Academic Advisor,” was designed to help participants make smart and savvy decisions about their next steps along the doctoral journey.

Participants were able to engage in the discussion, both in-person and virtually, through the #hackphd hashtag on Twitter. Pasquini (2013) curated the tweets from the audience using the social media tool, Storify. Each panelist was able to share her story of her own doctoral experiences, while providing general advice and guidance about the graduate school process. Questions from the audience included how to determine both the doctoral program and which field to study, how to choose a dissertation topic, how to form relationships with faculty, and what career paths were available to advisors who had completed a doctoral degree. Panelists and audience members alike shared resources they had discovered to be helpful during their journeys.

Not surprisingly, much of the discussion centered around the delicate balance, if such a term exists, of the multiple roles a full-time advisor must face as a doctoral student. Doctoral work includes far more than just taking courses, followed by writing a dissertation. Other academic roles may include researcher, teaching assistant, tutor, or project officer (Anderson & Swazey, 1998; Pearson, Evans & Macauley, 2004). Doctoral students may also spend time developing grants and writing for publication (Appel & Dahlgren, 2003). The research aspect of a doctoral student’s life may be one of the most time-consuming roles, partially because independent research is not necessarily encountered during the undergraduate career (Anderson & Swazey, 1998). Other academic commitments may include participation in national organizations and other professional development opportunities within the academic community (Gardner & Barnes, 2007).

Full-time work and family commitments with spouses or partners, children, and relatives comprise some of the larger personal responsibilities (Baird, 1993; Leonard, Becker, & Coate, 2005). Household tasks and errands, and even maintaining contact with friends, are other commitments (Appel & Dahlgren, 2003). These personal roles can be the source of conflict for many doctoral students, as they must prioritize how they can physically devote their time. Tensions may arise in personal relationships when a partner does not understand the time commitments required by academic roles (Anderson & Miezitis, 1999; Leonard et al., 2005). With 40% of students who begin a PhD program failing to complete it (Golde, 2005), it is no wonder why concerns about doctoral research and expectations were of significant interest among academic advisors who are thinking about this type of terminal degree.

The tensions among academic and personal roles can have a great impact on an advisor’s doctoral education. The theory of doctoral student persistence (Tinto, 1997) in particular can provide a look at how conflicting roles might impede a doctoral student’s academic progress. Tinto’s theory (1997) assumes that the primary communities for students relative to their graduate education are their peers and the faculty in their programs. Social integration within graduate education is almost synonymous with academic integration in the department. These social communities assist students with both intellectual and skill-building capacities needed to succeed in their doctoral programs, as well as networking within the greater professional community. Membership in other communities, e.g. those encompassing personal roles, can have a negative impact on graduate persistence by providing conflicting demands for time. If students are not able to manage their competing roles, they may find that they must give up on some of them.

Doctoral researchers, especially those who support the needs of others students, require new means for scaffolding in the academic advising community. A number of doctoral students within NACADA have connected in a variety of ways to share their own journey through coursework, research, and dissertation completion. Mewburn (2011) indicated evidence that doctoral researchers who interact with one another often whined or shared struggling stories with each other even if they were not having any challenges. It is clear that the path to the final dissertation defense can be a challenge, especially for those advisors supporting student success at a post-secondary institution concurrently with their own terminal degree. Within the academic advising community, a number of doctoral researchers have gained advice and support they need to “hack” through the doctoral process. Professional associations like NACADA provide a forum for doctoral students to seek out mentors who will not only support but further their careers. These mentors are invaluable to providing insight into research methods, guiding the dissertation process, and scaffolding the job search.

The Global Community for Academic Advising (NACADA) provides a broad support system and mentoring space for advisors who are undertaking doctoral work. For example, NACADA offers group support with the Doctoral Student Interest Group. There are also a number of avenues to gain research experience within the association, including research symposia, doctoral/research listservs, research grant applications, or volunteering on the research committee. NACADA encourages emerging scholars to write and publish in Academic Advising Today and the NACADA Journal, or share publication work during a conference presentation session. Finally, there are a number of incentives for scholarship through the dissertation award, graduate student scholarships, and research grants available. 

Moving forward, it is critical to continue to nourish and cultivate academic professionals who want to hack their doctoral degree. To persist through doctoral work, it is critical to ask advising units, higher education institutions, and the profession how doctoral research by advisors can be best supported. The survival rate of doctoral research often stems from organizational culture, supervision, and scaffolding for progress. It is important to value the work being done by academic advising doctoral researchers, by offering local incentives such as institutional tuition breaks, flexible scheduling for advising appointments, and opportunities to publish or present at NACADA on their research. Other methods of support might include mentoring research within the advising unit or institution, including doctoral work as part of the professional development plan, and embracing scholar-practitioner contributions for the advising unit strategic goals. For the development and growth of the community of academic advising, infusing scholarship into advising practices will only enhance how we best deliver student support services at our institutions.

Melissa L. Johnson, PhD
Associate Director, Honors Program
University of Florida
mjohnson@honors.ufl.edu

Laura A. Pasquini, PhD
Lecturer, Department of Learning Technologies - College of Information
University of North Texas
Laura.Pasquini@unt.edu

References

Anderson, B. J. & Miezitis, S. (1999, Spring). Stress and life satisfaction in mature female graduate students. Initiatives, 59(1), 33-43.

Anderson, M. S. & Swazey, J. P. (1998). Reflections on the graduate student experience: An overview. New Directions for Higher Education, 101, 3-13.

Appel, M. L. & Dahlgren, L. G. (2003). Swedish doctoral students’ experiences on their journal towards a PhD: Obstacles and opportunities inside and outside the academic building. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(1), 89-110.

Baird, L. (1993). Increasing graduate student retention and degree attainment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gardner, S. K. & Barnes, B. J. (2007, July/August). Graduate student involvement: Socialization for the professional role. Journal of College Student Development, 48(4), 369-387.

Golde, C. M. (2005). The role of the department and discipline in doctoral student attrition: Lessons from four departments. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(6), 669-700.

Leonard, D., Becker, R. & Coate, K. (2005, May). To prove myself at the highest level: The benefits of doctoral study. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(2), 135-149.

Mewburn, I. (2011). Troubling talk: Assembling the PhD candidate. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(3), 321-332.

Pasquini, L. [LauraPasquini]. (2013). How to #HackPhD: Being a doctoral student & academic advisor. [Storify]. Retrieved from https://storify.com/laurapasquini/how-to-hackphd-being-a-doctoral-student-and-academ

Pearson, M., Evans, T. & Macauley, P. (2004, November). The working life of doctoral students: Challenges for research education and training. Studies in Continuing Education, 26(3), 347-353.

Tinto, V. (1997). Toward a theory of doctoral persistence. In P. G. Altbach (Series Ed.) & M. Nerad, R. June, & D. S. Miller (Vol. Eds.), Contemporary higher education: Graduate education in the United States (pp. 322-338). New York, NY: Garland Publishing, Inc. 

 

Cite this article using APA style as: Johnson, M.A. & Pasquini, L.A. (2014, September). Negotiating the multiple roles of being and advisor and doctoral student. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here] 


NACADA Emerging Leaders Program

ELPlogo.jpgCarol Pollard, Chair, Emerging Leaders Program Advisory Board, 2012-2014, and Emerging Leader, 2007-2009 Class
Erin Justyna, Emerging Leader, 2012-2014 Class
Leigh Cunningham, NACADA Executive Office

Since 2007, the NACADA Emerging Leaders Program has encouraged members from diverse backgrounds to get involved in leadership opportunities within the organization.  Each year, 10 Emerging Leaders and 10 Mentors are selected for the two-year program in which the Leaders and Mentors work closely to connect the Leaders to the areas of the association they are interested in and develop a plan for continued involvement and growth in the association. Leaders selected receive a $1,500 stipend to assist them with travel to NACADA conferences, institutes, and seminars.

With the program now entering its eighth year, many members of the Emerging Leaders classes have served in elected and appointed positions as chairs of NACADA regions, commissions, interest groups, committees, advisory boards, and task forces.  Emerging Leaders initiated the Career Advising Interest Group and the Advising at HBCUs Interest Group.  A number of Emerging Leaders have presented (some with their Mentors) at regional, annual, and international conferences, and many have served on region, C/IG or conference steering committees. Emerging Leaders have served as chairs or co-chairs of regional conferences, and one chaired our 2010 Annual Conference in Orlando.  Emerging Leaders have written for the NACADA Clearinghouse of Academic Advising Resources and NACADA books, taken part in Webinar broadcast presentations, and been awarded NACADA Research Grants. Seven Emerging Leaders have moved on to become Mentors in the program.  Several have shared their stories in Academic Advising Today articles, which may be found linked from the Program homepage.  To learn more about the contributions of our ELP Classes, visit the Accomplishments webpage.

2012-2014 ELP Class.jpgThe 2012-2014 Emerging Leaders and Mentors (pictured left), who began work at the 2012 Annual Conference in Nashville, have been diligently pursuing their goals over the past two years and look forward to receiving their Certificates of Completion at this year's conference in Minneapolis, where they will be recognized at the Awards Ceremony.

Among those who will receive a Certificate of Completion in Minneapolis is Erin Justyna, Assistant Director of the Center for Active Learning and Undergraduate Engagement at Texas Tech University, who reflects on her NACADA experiences in the following section.

Learning to Be Mentored

Erin Justyna.jpgNACADA has been a key source of professional identity for me since I attended my first Annual Conference in Indianapolis in 2006.   I got involved in the association immediately, first moderating and presenting, and then seeking out volunteer and leadership roles within the Commission and Interest Group Division.  I served as a reviewer, a steering committee member, and eventually chair for the Advising Students with Disabilities Commission.  So, why did I pursue the Emerging Leaders Program?  

My whole life I have been an achiever, and yet in the years leading up to my application to the Emerging Leaders Program (ELP), I was feeling underwhelmed and bored professionally.  I found myself stuck in a peg I didn’t really fit and unsure of how to get out.  I was in need of mentorship from outside my institution.  I applied and was accepted as an Emerging Leader in 2012.  My involvement in ELP changed (and is still changing) my life in countless positive ways. 

The experience was a little rocky for me at the start.  One challenge was the physical distance between my mentor, Laura Pasquini, and me. Texas is big, ya’ll!  I absolutely hate the phone and until recently have been highly avoidant of web cams.  Laura was flexible and assured me that we could speak through email and social media if that was how I was most comfortable.  She also stretched me beyond my self-imposed boundaries, and I am now comfortable conducting meetings online.  The physical distance wasn’t the only challenge.  I am extremely independent and was a lot more set in my ways than I realized. I overestimated how alike my mentor and I were (which isn’t all that important actually) and felt anxiety when she suggested opportunities for growth that didn’t appear immediately obvious to me. It took a little time for me to realize I wouldn’t grow if I only took the nudging that was in the direction I had already intended to go.  Before I could succeed as an Emerging Leader, I had to learn to let go and be mentored.  Once I reframed the ELP experience, I began to reap the numerous benefits of Laura’s mentorship. 

Laura gave me suggestions and she gave me space.  When I went M.I.A., she reminded me she was there if I needed her.  The most successful part of the relationship was having Laura as a sounding board and idea creator.  She was able to brainstorm paths for me that I would not have known existed.  For instance, she alerted me to the American Society for Trainers and Development conference, where I was able to see my professional idol Sir Ken Robinson speak.  That experience was life changing.  Laura encouraged me to think big, and I did.  One of my favorite opportunities was acting as the keynote speaker for the University of Nebraska-Lincoln’s first annual advising conference - talk about stepping out of my comfort zone in the best way!

Since beginning the ELP, I have had the opportunity to serve NACADA on the Service to the Commission and Interest Group Division Award Task Force, the Emerging Leaders Program Advisory Board, the Administrators’ Institute Advisory Board, and I have recently been appointed to the Academic Advising Consultant and Speaker Service Advisory Board.  On my own campus, I have been invited to serve on the Strategic Planning Priority Committee, the ePortfolio Task Force, and the Quality Enhancement Plan Topic Selection and Development Committees.  I have a new career in the Division of Undergraduate Education at Texas Tech University and am working toward a doctorate studying creativity.  These are direct outcomes of the energy I focused as I participated in the Emerging Leaders Program.  The time I spent with the ELP was absolutely inimitable.  I have grown as a person and a professional, and have a mentoring relationship that I will carry with me as I seek out new adventures.  I encourage you to consider participating in the ELP. It is challenging. It is rewarding. It is one of the best professional opportunities you will ever have.

2012-2014 ELPers at mid-term.jpg

Emerging Leaders Program Advisory Board Chair Carol Pollard (University of North Texas), herself an “Emerged” Leader, is pleased to announce the 2014-2016 NACADA Emerging Leaders and Mentors

Emerging Leaders

Alexander Kunkle (Western Oregon University)
Drew Puroway (University of St. Thomas)
Jacqueline Nicholson (Norfolk State University)
Jason Wiegand (Iowa State University)
Jennifer Cornet-Carrillo (University of California, Berkeley)
Jose Ramos (Old Dominion University)
Julie Enciso (Prince George’s Community College)
Mary Tucker (University of Memphis)
Michelle Sotolongo (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Wiona Porath (Siena Heights University)

Mentors

Adam Duberstein (Bowling Green State University)
Art Farlowe (University of South Carolina-Columbia)
Carol Pollard (University of North Texas)
DeLaine Priest (University of Central Florida)
Kathy Davis (Missouri State University)
Kazi Mamun (University of California-Riverside)
Melissa Johnson (University of Florida)
Nathan Vickers (University of Texas at Austin)
Shannon Burton (Michigan State University)
Todd Taylor (University of Cincinnati)  

New Emerging Leaders and Mentors will meet at the Annual Conference in Minneapolis to create partnerships and begin development, conversation, and group-building. Partners will develop goals pertaining to leadership in NACADA over the next six months and continue their work together over the two-year program.

Visit the Emerging Leaders Program website for more information.

Cite this article using APA style as: Pollard, C., Justyna, E., & Cunningham, L. (2014, September). NACADA emerging leaders program. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]


Assessment Rocks!

Paula Dollarhide, 2014 Assessment of Academic Advising Institute Scholarship recipient

Paula Dollarhide.jpgFifteen years ago I moved from Oklahoma to New Jersey and began a new career in higher education as an academic advisor in The Center for Academic Advising at Richard Stockton College.  Peter Hagen, my supervisor and long-time NACADA member, encouraged me from the beginning to be active in the association.  Through many types of NACADA experiences, I have learned to look at advising from many different perspectives and have grown in my knowledge of theory and philosophy of advising.  In 2008, I attended a Summer Institute in Austin and developed and implemented a plan for improving faculty advisor development.  All this was done with the help of fantastic NACADA faculty members who knew how to shepherd me and my faculty team member through the process of change.

When the call came out to apply for a scholarship for the 2014 Assessment of Academic Advising Institute, I knew I should again take advantage of the rich learning experiences NACADA has to offer.  It was time for our advising unit to move forward with a more structured assessment process.  It’s hard work!  We needed help.   When I was privileged to be awarded a scholarship, I got a “you go, girl!” from Peter.  My next step was to ask him to come along and get involved in assessment, which luckily he agreed to do.  The scholarship allowed us to work out our funding so that both of us could go, so how could he refuse?  After travel delays due to the many snowstorms in the East in February, Peter and I arrived in sunny Albuquerque.  It was a breath of fresh air for us, and that inspired us to dig in and get to work! The wonderful cuisine in Albuquerque didn’t hurt either!

During the opening plenary session we were introduced to the outstanding institute faculty, who broke the ice with their clever introductions—and the group cheer “assessment rocks!”  The faculty assured us that we were going to work hard, but this was going to be an exciting few days.  The faculty reminded us not to try for perfection the first time we go through the assessment cycle.  That calmed many of our fears.  We knew that there would be many starts and stops in this process.  In two and a half days we covered the important parts of the assessment cycle, from learning about values, vision, and mission statements to developing and mapping student learning outcomes.  Each day started with a large group session to hear a plenary address about a part of the assessment cycle.  Smaller sessions covered special topics such as how to conduct focus groups, developing rubrics and satisfaction surveys.  A major part of each day was spent in small group activities.  Our small group leader, Tomarra Adams from the University of Louisville, helped us refine our values and mission statements.  She was a great encourager!  Tomarra met all of us where we were in the process and gave us homework to help us move forward with our individual plans.  Each assessment team in our small group presented their assessment plans, and we discussed the issues involved.  Listening to others in our group and sharing our experiences on our on campus communities was most helpful. In fact, I learned quite a bit about existing national surveys and quantitative research over breakfast and lunch tables with colleagues. 

Most of us in advising have similar challenges with time and resources.  The Assessment Institute faculty reminded us that we don’t have to assess everything at once—to take only a few student learning outcomes at a time to process. Whew!  We needed to hear that.  However, we learned that using a minimum of three different measures for each process/delivery was critical to determine validity of any one outcome.  True assessment of academic advising is far beyond a simple satisfaction survey or advisor evaluation. 

Regretfully, our time in Albuquerque quickly came to an end, and we left sunny skies to head back to more snow!  However, Peter and I now have a much better idea of the work that needs to be done on our campus.  We are back on campus equipped with the tools to refine our values, vision, and mission statements, and have garnered support from our colleagues in our office and across campus.  We have also established an assessment plan for the coming year and have begun work on mapping student learning outcomes. The best part is that we had time away to focus on assessment of advising, away from the distractions of our everyday work.  I am grateful for the opportunity to attend the 2014 NACADA Assessment of Academic Advising Institute and want to thank the tremendous faculty members who put so much of their time and effort into helping us understand, implement, and appreciate the systematic approach of assessment!

Paula Dollarhide
Associate Director, The Center for Academic Advising
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
paula.dollarhide@stockton.edu

Cite this article using APA style as: Dollarhide, P. (2014, September). Assessment rocks. Academic Advising Today, 37(3). Retrieved from [insert url here]

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